Citation and reference are used to develop a link between the material and its source. Researchers use information from other authors in the form of evidence. Whenever they use the information of another author, it is necessary to cite that author properly. Citation and referencing is the primary demand of research work and other assignments. The information taken from any book, or article needs to be cited, and referenced properly. Irrespective of personal observation, everything should be properly cited and referenced. This shows that you are acknowledging the work of another person.
Citation and referencing is the form of giving credit to the author. Not citing material used is a very unethical practice. It even goes against the rule and regulations. In assignments, it is very common to use diagrams, facts, and figures. All these things need proper citation and referencing as well. Here experts of assignment writing services have discussed some ways to cite and reference within the assignments correctly. These are highlighted as follows;
Understanding the Referencing Styles
The very first thing to know about citation and referencing is its style. You have to cite, and reference in the required style of an assignment. There are four types of referencing styles. The first one is MLA (Modern Languages Association) system. The second one is APA (American Psychological Association) system. Third one is the Harvard system, and lastly MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) system. If you are working on an assignment of a particular institute, you have to ensure their referencing requirements. Every institute has procedural sheets that explain the requirements. Given below are some basic points related to these styles;
The MLA System
In MLA, an in-text citation is used within brackets. At the same time, full-length citation is used in the bibliography. It is mentioned as a reference. Within the bracket, you have to add surname of the author, and page number. For example, (LENA, 19).
For example, you are using material of the same author, but it includes more than one work. Then you have to add the title too. For example, (Lena, Old Ways, 19). Here Lena is the surname. Old Ways is the title, and 19 is the page number.
In bibliography, MLA goes for the alphabetic order of references. In the bibliography, you have to add the following;
- Full name of the author
- Full title of the book
- Publication location
- Date of publication.
For example, Lena, Jhon. Old Ways: The Refashioning of Old System 1980-1994. Bridgend: Seren, 1996.
The APA System
In APA, you have to add the author’s surname, publication date, and page number within brackets. For example, (Lena, 2010, p. 20). While in bibliography, APA goes for alphabetic order by last name of the author. It also includes surname of the author and the following respectively;
- Date of publication within the bracket
- Name of the book
- Location of publication
- Name of publisher
For example, Lena, P. (1986) Old Ways: The Refashioning of Old System 1980-1994. Bridgend: Seren.
The Harvard System
In-text citation in Harvard includes surname of the author and publication date. Its bibliography goes with alphabetic order of the surnames.
The MHRA System
This system does not include in-text citations. But it uses superscript numbers like this 1. It is linked with references section at end of the assignment. In the bibliography, it is like this;
1 John Lena, Old Ways: The Refashioning of Old System 1980-1994. (Bridgend: Seren).
Single or More Author
In citation and referencing, the writer has to deal with single or more authors. As the number of author increases, you have to deal with them differently. Let’s discuss each case one by one. When you have to deal with direct quotations, you have to add the reference. Another form of quotation is a block quotation. When a quotation is longer than four lines, it is called a block quotation. Here you do not need to add quotation marks. You can add it in a text box.
Then you can add citations within the bracket. Another form is the paraphrasing of text. On the other hand, sometimes you have to add more than one work of the same author. In this case, you have to add a short form of the title as well. Similarly, you can have the situation of different authors having the same surname/name. In this case, you have to add the first initial of the authors. You can also add first names in the full form. When you have to deal with two, three, or more different authors, the citation is different. In the case of two authors, use both authors’ last names and link both of them with and. While in the case of three or more authors, you have to add the first author’s name. Then after that, you use et al. and the close brackets.
Here when the author is the name of the company, you have to add their departments. And then separate them with the help of a comma. You can go through its examples and practise in a good way.
Pseudonyms, Online Usernames, etc
In case of pseudonyms, you have to add the citation of Lena Jhon as (Jhon 19-29). While in the case of an online username, you have to use it as a standard.
Sometimes the author name is not mentioned. In this case, use the title and page number as a citation, and reference.
When you take data from a secondary source, use “quoted in” (qtd. in) as a citation.
No Page Numbers; and Other Location Numbering Schemes
In this case, use surname of the author and paragraph number in the citation. In this way. You can manage this situation effectively. Since page numbers are not given, other vital information can be used using educational tools for creating a citation or reference.
At university levels, assignments are taken as a start for research work. So professors train you well at the start. Citation and referencing is the foundation of any well-performed task. It also helps the writer in expanding his/her vision. For proper citation and referencing, a writer has to explore things, and read them well. In this way, he gets to know about many things. You get to know about new ideas and terms that will help you in the future. Suppose someone wants to continue his/her career as a researcher. Then this will be the best time for them to polish their skills. This is because citation and referencing increase the accuracy level in your work.